Misunderstanding 3:  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Data is collected in phenomenology through long and intensive, semi-structured or unstructured personal interviews. If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. One of the highlights from the international seminar on New Emerging Business Models in Animation, Cartoon Business, which took place in Utrecht, Netherlands in… No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. A theory is a coherent explanation or interpretation of one or more phenomena However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way. If your subject of analysis is a person. Case Study: Case study is an in-depth and detailed investigation of the development of a single event, situation, or an individual over a period of time. Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? A case study may be defined as an in-depth exploration of a phenomenon, an individual process or an event based on the context that uses multiple techniques for data collection and analysis. The mathematical model that we use for studying the nature of pairwise connections among entities is known as the graph.Some graphs exhibit a specific property known as the small-world phenomenon. Case studies answer “how” and “why” research questions with a high degree of detail. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students]. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here. Rev. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions. Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? A case study is a research strategy and an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Case study research allows the researcher to look at the phenomenon in context. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and, enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address, physical, social, economic, cultural, or political. phenomenon. ● Description o Illustrative Case Studies are used to describe a situation or a phenomenon, what is happening with it, and why it is happening. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Phenomenology is based on the principle that a single experience can be interpreted in multiple ways and that reality consists of each participant’s interpretation of the said experience. Case Study: Case studies focus on a single incident, event, organization, or an individual. To quote, these are: Misunderstanding 1:  General, theoretical [context-independent knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical (context-dependent) knowledge. A case study is a descriptive and exploratory analysis of a person, group or event. the case; and the collective case study is the study of a number of cases in order to inquire into a particular phenomenon. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study. This type of case studies focus on phenomena within the contexts of real-life situations. Phenomenology: Phenomenology focus on various individuals and their experiences. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. Phenomenology: Interviews are the main method of data collection. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. Find out more: Case Study: The Wild Boy of Aveyron (BBC Radio 4 documentary). 1 Definitions. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain, The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. Many researchers use case study method to explore social issues like prostitution, drug addiction, unemployment, and poverty. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. 6th edition. Researchers describe how case studies examine complex phenomena in the natural setting to increase understanding of them.3 4 Indeed, Sandelowski5 suggests using case studies in research means that the holistic nature of nursing care can be addressed. Case Study Research in Practice. ], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. 4.5 Case Study: Small-World Phenomenon. Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate: Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. What is the Difference Between Retrospective and... What is the Difference Between Case Control and... What is the Difference Between Longitudinal and... What is the Difference Between Martini and Dirty Martini, What is the Difference Between Season and Weather, What is the Difference Between Margarita and Daiquiri, What is the Difference Between Cocktail and Mocktail, What is the Difference Between Rutabaga and Turnip, What is the Difference Between Appetizer and Entree. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Home » Education » Difference Between Case Study and Phenomenology. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following: Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Furthermore, when describing the steps undertaken while using a case study approach, this method of research allows the researcher to take a complex and broad topic, or phe… The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. 2000). When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound. Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are, Flyvbjerg, Bent. In Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. ed. Case studies are based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group or event to explore the causes of underlying principles. This is a limitation of this method. Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308. Case Study: Data collection methods include observations, interviews, questionnaires, etc. studying multiple cases simultaneously or sequentially in. The collective case study involves. Phenomenology is both a philosophy and a research method. For an example, a researcher who studies the impact of second rape on the lives of rape victims can conduct a few case studies which will allow him to comprehend the subjective experiences of the individuals as well as social mechanisms that contribute towards this phenomenon. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a single case study design. This includes synthesizing studies that help to: In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. Difference Between Case Study and Phenomenology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. In simple terms, it is an in-depth and detailed investigation of the development of a single event, situation, or an individual over a period of time. However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem. What is a Case Study          – Definition, Use, Data Collection, Limitations     2. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.”, Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper. Reference:1. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic. The idea of research hierarchy (case studies are only to explore, surveys and histories are to describe and experiments are for explanatory or causal inquiries) in which case studies are 1 only a preliminary method and cannot be used to describe or test propositions, isn’t helpful. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Example: “An investigation into the reasons of the … If your subject of analysis is an incident or event. Yin, Robert. Data collection methods in a case study involve observations, questionnaires, interviews, analysis of recorded data, etc. The case study discussed in the paper brings out our evidence-based approach in reflighting a helicopter aircrew with CSFP. However, case studies can stand alone by rigorously describing and explaining a phenomenon (Rowley, 2002). Kodokushi Phenomenon in Contemporary Japan Kodokushi is a Japanese term, means a person dies completely alone at home without being noticed for a long period of time. Writing@CSU. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. What is Phenomenology          – Definition, Use, Data Collection, Limitations     3. Mostly, it is about singular or remarkable phenomena. In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. London: SAGE, 2010. Hasa has a BA degree in English, French and Translation studies. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm. As a qualitative research method, case studies should be used when the behavior, intervention or independent variable is not manipulated. Instrumental case studies constitute exemplars of a more general phenomenon. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. To refer to a work as a “case study” might mean: that its method is qualitative, small-N; that the research is holistic, thick (a more or less comprehensive examination of a phenomenon); that it utilizes a particular type of evidence (e.g. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address. Flyvbjerg, Bent. Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Case study and phenomenology are two terms that are often used in the field of social sciences and research. The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. Case studies do not necessarily mean they are only about one person or a small group of people. Phenomenology: Phenomenology is a study that is designed to understand the subjective, lived experiences and perspectives of participants. Suggest Areas for Further Research In another example – a case study about fatal decisions on battlefields (the phenomenon) – the study may consist of an intensive analysis of documents concerning some fatal decision in five great battles (the five cases) in the Second World War. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. Case studies are often used to explore and unearth complex issues such as social issues, medical conditions, etc. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education. A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance. The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic. Case studies are sometimes classified into three categories known as exploratory, descriptive and explanatory case studies. General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the "Choosing a Research Problem" tab in this writing guide. However, the information gathered through these interviews may also depend on the interviewing skills of the researcher and the articulate skills of the participants. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. If you’re looking for a sample case study analysis that includes compilations of different case studies, you’ve clicked on the right link. As a research methodology, the main difference between case study and phenomenology is that case study is an in-depth and detailed investigation of the development of a single event, situation, or an individual over a period of time whereas phenomenology is a study that is designed to understand the subjective, lived experiences and perspectives of participants. Case studies are often a … "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." In the social and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a particular case. 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